What is History? | Types of History |Time and calendar | Art History.
History is a science that examines the wars and peace, culture and civilizations, socio-economic structures of past human societies, based on documents, by showing time and place in a cause-effect relationship.
General History It examines the entire history of mankind on earth, from the beginning to the present, in political, social, economic, and cultural history.
For example, World History Special History studies only the political, economic, and cultural history of a state. For example, the History of the Republic of Turkey. Political History examines international political events, wars, peace, and alliances. For example, Ottoman Political History, For example, the Chinese Civilization
What are the Types of History?
Subsidiaries of History
- Philology is Linguistics. Examines the languages of societies.
- Geography The characteristics and climate of geographical regions are effective in the evaluation of historical events.
- Chronology is the science of the calendar. It gives the order of occurrence of historical events.
- Paleograph examines the writings used by societies in the past. This branch of science is not effective in illuminating prehistoric periods.
- Anthropology is the science that studies and classifies the human race.
- Examines diplomatic edicts, warrants, and correspondence of the period.
- Ethnography is the science that examines the cultures of societies.
- Archeology is the science of excavation.
Introduction to History
DEFINITION OF HISTORY
History is the science that describes all kinds of activities of human communities living in the past, by informing PLACE AND TIME, in a CAUSE-EFFECT relationship.
WHAT IS THE SUBJECT OF HISTORY
It is all kinds of activities of human societies living in the past.
WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF PLACE AND TIME IN HISTORY EXPRESS
1)- By specifying the place and time, we understand whether the event is REAL or not.
2)- The place where the event took place and the time of the event is necessary for us to determine the cause and consequences of that event.
WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP
All events are interconnected like links in a chain. every event is the
RESULT of the event before it and the Cause of the event after it. If we do not know the previous event, we cannot grasp the next event.
WHAT IS THE EVENT
It is the occurrence that occurs in social, economic, cultural, religious, and similar fields that concern people. Cases of formation process or as a symptom of something else consist of the observed phenomena. An example is the conquest of Anatolia by the Turks. The Turkification of Anatolia is a Phenomenon.
WHAT IS THE PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY
The reinterpretation of historical experiences for the solution of today’s issues is
called the Philosophy of History.
CLASSIFICATION OF HISTORY (CLASSIFICATION
1)- Classification by Time: (Example: Medieval history, 15th-century history, etc.)
2)- Classification by Space (Place): (Example: History of Turkey, such as European history…)
3 )- Classification by Subject: (Example: History of Medicine, History of Art…) relation of historical experiences for the solution of today’s issues is called the Philosophy of History.
WHY DO WE CLASSIFY HISTORY
The reason why we classify history according to Time, Place and Subject is to facilitate learning, teaching and research.
THE METHOD OF HISTORY A historian who studies historical events applies the following methods in order.
1)-SOURCE SEARCH First, the sources related to the event are searched. Sources are divided into 2
1- Main Sources (Primary Sources): These are the sources belonging to the period when the event took place.
2- Second Hand Resources: making use of the main sources are prepared to source also sources of written and unwritten sources say could be two separate:
1- Sources: inscriptions, decrees, laws, court records, notary papers, newspapers, magazines, etc …
2- Unwritten ( Verbal) Sources: Houses, castles, temples, statues, weapons, goods, epics, legends, anecdotes, proverbs, customs, etc…
2)- CLASSIFYING, ANALYZING, AND CRITICAL THE DATA
a)- Classification (Classification): Obtained information is classified according to time, place and subject.
b)- Analysis (Analysis=Analysis): Is the information we obtained from the sources reliable?
By making comparisons, the information is examined in this direction.
c)- Criticism: It is determined whether the information obtained is useful or not, which information will be used.
It is the stage of editing and writing the information obtained from the sources.
SCIENCES THAT HELP HISTORY
1)- PALEOGRAPHY: It is the science that allows the reading of ancient writings. jects such as stone and marble. 2)- SOCIOLOGY (Social Science): Examines social events. 7)- ANTHROPOLOGY: Examines the racial structures of societies.
3)-Philology Linguistics: Examines languages and the links between languages.
4)- ETHNOGRAPHY: Examines the customs, traditions.
5)- DIPLOMATIC: Official documents, edicts, etc. examines.
6)- HERALDİK (Seal science): Examines the seal, coat of arms, and special signs in official documents. 7)- NUMISMATICS (Science of Coins): Examines old coins.
TIME AND CALENDAR
WHAT IS A CALENDAR Calendar is a method of dividing time into days, months, years.
People used the Sun and the Moon as measurement tools when measuring time.
DESCRIPTION Sun users are based on one full rotation of the earth around the sun.
(365 days 6 hours) We call the calendars created in this way the SOLAR CALENDAR.
Those who use the Moon are based on the Moon’s rotation around the Earth 12 times (12 x 29.5 = 354)
. We call the calendars created in this way the MONTH CALENDAR.
The Egyptians created the first solar calendar in history, and the SUMERs created the first lunar calendar.
In history, Each society has used a day that they consider important for themselves as a START while creating their own calendar. Example: Romans founded Rome, Muslims Hijra Christians Hz. Like the birth of Jesus…
1)-CALENDAR USED BY TURKS 1)- TURKISH CALENDAR WITH 12 ANIMALS
It is the oldest calendar used by Turks. It is based on the solar year in history.
2)- CELALI CALENDAR: This calendar, which was prepared by the Melik Shah during the Great Seljuks, was prepared according to the solar year.
3)- HIJRI CALENDAR It is based on the lunar year. To begin with, Mr. It takes 622 years when Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina. Today we use this calendar on religious days such as Ramadan and mawlids.
4)- RUMI CALENDAR It is the calendar in history that came into effect from the beginning of the 19th century to be used in official and financial affairs in the Ottoman state. It is based on the Solar Year.
5)- MILADY (MILAT) CALENDAR This is the calendar we have been using since 1926 history. It is based on the Egyptians. It was transferred to the West through the Ionian and Greeks.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE HIJRI CALENDAR AND THE Gregorian calendar?
1)- The Hijri Calendar is based on the lunar year, and the Gregorian Calendar is based on the solar year. So there is 11 days difference between the two.
2)- The start dates are different. The starting date in the Hijri Calendar is 622, the date in history when the Prophet Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina. In the Gregorian calendar, the beginning is Hz. The date of birth of Jesus is the year 0.
THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING FROM THE HIJRI CALENDAR TO THE Gregorian calendar QUESTION in history: In history, Convert the year 1340 Hijri to Gregorian. Hijri=1340 Gregorian=? 1340 ÷ 32 = 40.6 (Approx. 41) 1340 – 41 = 1299 1299 + 622= 1921
THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING FROM THE Gregorian calendar to the Hijri calendar QUESTION: Convert the year 1998 to the Hijri calendar Gregorian=1998 Hijri=? 1998 – 622 = 1376 1376 ÷ 33 = 41.7 (approx. 42) 1376 +42 = 1418
THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING FROM RUMI CALENDAR TO Gregorian calendar QUESTION: In history Rumi 31 March 1325, Gregorian=?
31 March 1325
+ 13 584 There
is a difference of 13 days ______________ 584 years between the two calendars .
April 13, 1909
THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING FROM THE Gregorian CALENDAR TO THE RUMI CALENDAR 29 October 1923 Gregorian, Rumi=? 29 October 1923 – 13 584 _______________ 16 October 1339
Dividing time into epochs is an artificial division.
For example, In history, the conquest of Istanbul is an important historical event that affected Europe and Asia. However, this event did not directly affect the people living in America and Africa at that time. Again, while people in Egypt and Mesopotamia used writing, people in other parts of the world only used it hundreds of years later.
In history, The quality of the tools and equipment used in the separation of prehistoric periods from each other was examined. According to this, prehistoric periods are divided as follows.
1)-STONE AGE 2)- CHALCOLITHIC(STONE-COPPER) AGE 3)-
BRONZE AGE a)- Eskitaş (Kabataş) Age
b)- Ortataş (Chipped Stone) Age
c)- New Stone (Polished Stone) Age
2)- CHALCOLITHIC (STONE-COPPER) AGE:
Towards the end of the Stone Age, the mine was discovered. The first metal used was copper. Chalcolithic Age in Turkey (5500 BC – 2500 BC): Troy in Çanakkale, Hacılar in Burdur, Alişar in Yozgat, Alacahöyük in Çorum.
3)- BUNCH AGE
In this period, the first administrative organizations (state) called sites were established. Bronze Age in Turkey (2500 BC-1200 BC): In parallel with the increase in production in Anatolia, trade developed and social relations accelerated.
WHY SHOULD WE LEARN ART HISTORY?
EACH ARTWORK TELLS YOU ITS OWN STORY.
THERE’S MORE TO ART HISTORY THAN YOU THINK.
This may sound like news, but Art History isn’t just about drawing, painting, and sculpture. You will also encounter decorative arts such as calligraphy, architecture, photography. and armor, furniture, ceramics, woodworking, jewelry, and much more. In conclusion, someone has created something worth seeing, Art History will present it to you.
ART HISTORY IMPROVES YOUR SKILLS.
OUR WORLD IS GETTING MORE VISUAL.
BECAUSE ART HISTORY IS YOUR HISTORY!