Politics | Politics as a social institution | Constitutional authority.
Politics is a word of Arabic origin and means the work of the groom, that is, the care of the horse. More specifically, it is observing and observing an object and an event. The word politics is of Ancient Greek origin. In ancient Greek, “Police” was used to mean a city organized in the form of a state, and politics was used to mean “Polis”, that is, works belonging to the city-state.
Recently, the terms politics and politics have been used in the same sense.
The concept of politics has become so widespread and settled in everyday language that the concept of politics, which originally meant only works related to the state method, is now called any kind of planned action, policy or politics aimed at almost any purpose. In this context, politics is called a certain group of people together or politics.
POLITICS AS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION
The political institution is one of the basic social institutions that make up the social structure. In a structure, the system related to the distribution of authority and power constitutes the political institution. The most important element that characterizes the political system is the quality of authority. This situation directly affects all institutions and cultures of the social structure.
POLITICAL SCIENCE and POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY
For sociology, politics has a special place among the social institutions that affect the individual. The most important concept where politics and sociology intersect is power. Political sociology is a sub-branch of sociology, a specialty; this area has chosen the relations of power and society as the problem subject. Regarding the concept of power, the state, government, political parties, parliament, elections, citizenship, ideology, authority, etc. All of these concepts are among the primary subjects of political sociology with their social dimensions.
According to Maurice Duverger, one of the leading names in political sociology; Politics and society are two intertwined fields and cannot be separated from each other. There are two main approaches in political sociology:
Political sociology is the science of the state.
Political sociology is the science of power.
From this point of view, Duverger claims that the view of political sociology as a science of power is more functional than the view that it is a science of the state.
According to the sociologist Bottomore, the reality of power in a broad sense is family, religious environments, universities, unions, etc. formations exist at certain levels. This is an important dimension that should not be overlooked in terms of macro study areas of politics. However, political sociology chooses the power reality of a particular society as its problem area.
Social Contexts of Politics
We have defined politics as the art of making decisions regarding matters arising from the cohabitation of a certain group of people. As can be expected, it is impossible to find a template in which this problem will be resolved in every group relationship, and it may not be possible to talk about the continuity of every solution found.
Power is a simple and obvious phenomenon. In politics, It is possible to talk about an identifiable hierarchy in the relation it refers to. With this aspect, it is possible to encounter it in every social relationship and environment. However, this possibility does not necessarily require its presence in every social relationship. Therefore, in Politics power is the most fundamental element in raising awareness.
The objectification of the concept of power in history has increased the effective control over its observability.
In Politics, Power divides, there is a division through power relations. This division has its sides. Power units, the continuity of the social relationship in which the power relationship exists depends on the character of this combination. Power is a social vision of this division and unification.
In the definitions of the concept of power, there is always a reference to a certain social relationship and social environment in relation to the concept of power, however, there is no explanation about the nature of this relationship.
Authority and Constitutionalism
Consent to the pressure of political power turns this power into an authority. Political power transformed into authority is legitimate political power. In this sense, constitutionalism means the belief fed by those who are subject to authority, and authority means the legitimate use of power.
According to Weber, there are three types of authority, the traditional authority, and charismatic authority, according to the basis of legitimacy on which they are based. In the type of legal authority, the legitimacy of the power to rule is based on norms consisting of rationality rules that are binding and obligatory for everyone.
The type of authority that emerges as a result of the people’s full attachment to a person’s supposed extraordinary qualities and the order created by that person is charismatic authority. It is important that the belief in the masses that the leader has very extraordinary qualities in charismatic authority has arisen.
People living in society need a political union due to internal and external factors; This is the union state.
One of the internal factors that compel the state to form is the need for the organization of the society. There can be no society without laws, rules, and order.
External threats to human and social freedom are at the forefront of the non-social factors that force the state to form. Here the state emerges to protect them and ensure the sovereignty of the nation.
The state is an independent nation or community of nations organized with political, legal, economic, and social institutions depending on its territorial integrity. Accordingly, there are three elements that make up the state: homeland, nation, sovereignty.
Moreover, It is not possible for societies that have not reached the stage of the nation to become a state.
But Soil is an important element that directs societies to national consciousness. So, In order to become a state, the oppression, and oppression of other nations in the lands where people live.
away from their own struggles
They must have established their
In conclusion, The issue that is tried to be explained in studies that put the issue of the state on the agenda is the problem of the origin of the state. In this regard, it is necessary to roughly distinguish between two approaches, these are;
Sociological historical approaches
The evolution of the concept of the state can be studied in two periods:
The “traditional state” that lived until the French Revolution
The “modern state” that emerged after the French Revolution
Traditionally, the state was thought of as a power that could do what it wanted. Dominion, on the other hand, represented the ruler or privileged classes.
The modern state derives its power from the people.
When the legitimate state authority disappears, the state also disappears.
The state uses its authority in line with the interests of the individual and society. To this end, it fulfills three important tasks:
1- Legislative Duty
2- Execution Duty
3- Judicial Duty
In the Republic of Turkey, this authority belongs to the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
The executive power is
regarding the implementation of
It is a task. In T.C, this
that the President and the Ba-
given to the Board of Blood
The state authority also assumed the judicial function.
STATE FORMS ACCORDING TO THE SOURCE OF DOMINATION
There are different forms of government according to the source of domination. These; monarchical states, theocratic states, oligarchic states,s, and democratic states.
A monarchy is a state or regime over which political authority is vested, usually by inheritance. In this form of state, the source of domination is a single person. So the state is divided into two according to the form of domination.
Constitutional Monarchy, in Politics, If the monarch adopts an assembly composed of representatives of the nation, which prepares laws, then the administration becomes “constitutional”.
So, Theocratic State means Theocracy, a government based on religion. However, A theocratic state, on the other hand, is a kind of monarchy. In this type of monarchy, the source of dominance varies from person or group; He is God.
Oligarchic State, Oligarchy, is a form of state based on the dominance of a group or clan. Sovereignty is in the hands of a few individuals, a few families, or a section of the population.
This time In this state model, the nation has a say in the administration. So It took centuries for democracy to develop and reach its present form.
The main features of the democratic state:
- Human rights draw the boundaries of democracy. Adherence to the rights and freedoms that arise due to the mere human being is the basic principle of the democratic state.
- Democracy is a pledge of equality.
- National sovereignty is essential.
SEPARATION OF POWERS
The state is responsible for ensuring public authority, carrying out public secrets, and dispensing justice; In other words, it has three main functions: legislative, executive, and judicial. So the concentration of these tasks in one hand naturally results in the monopolization of power. In an absolute monarchy, power is concentrated in the monarch (the sultan, the king, …). In democratic societies, these tasks are different.
POLITICS IN TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES
Sociologically, traditional society is a society that precedes modern society. In this respect, the time and space context of the concept is very broad. The concept is very functional in this respect. Whenever Comte’s Law of Three States, F. Tonnies’ community society, community society, E. Durkheim’s society based on organic solidarity.
Whenever In traditional societies, the economy is based on agriculture, religious thinking is dominant, individuality is not important. Then Feudal society can be called a traditional society model in a way.
The concept underlying the political relations in feudal society is patronage. Following The three main groups that make up feudal society are those who pray, those who fight, and those who work. Moreover, These are the church, the chivalry, and the peasantry.
So, It is clear that in feudal society all these initial relations based on land created fragmented politics. It is the most important indicator of the fragmentation of the land and the fragmentation of power. Feudal lords have full sovereignty over the land in the region they dominate and the people living in this region. so It is possible to see the sovereignty of the king as theoretical domination.
POLITICS IN MODERN SOCIETY
The industrialization has created a division of labor and specialization in business life.
PUBLIC AREA, PRIVATE AREA
Conventions and conventions determine relations in modern social life. So the individual is the free subject at the center of these social relations. But this subject decides and does it with his own mind.
Moreover, the reason is the basic principle that guides the establishment of individual and social life. An unreasonable law is unacceptable. Always the life of the individual is divided into two as private and public.
Always Modern life is divided into two as private space and public space. Here, the public is a concept that sometimes refers to state organs, sometimes to media tools, and sometimes directly to the public.
The individual, who experiences his own subjective preferences and conditions in the private sphere, thinks and acts within the framework of the principle of reason in the public sphere. But The reason is the principle of the public sphere.
The individual, who is the subject of modern society, is often an entrepreneur. So the entrepreneur is the person who makes production possible.
In feudal society, the king and his family represent the privilege of power. Whenever This time In modern society, the state represents the central power.
In Politics, Parliament, elections, civil society, ideology, and public opinion are his tools.